Infantry Drills

D-58: Escalation of Force

Previous: D-56: Security Element

D-58. Escalation of force is a sequential action beginning with nonlethal force measures (visual signals to include flags, spotlights, lasers and pyrotechnics) which can escalate to lethal force measures to protect the force. Soldiers at the checkpoint must ensure they follow ROE and EOF guidance when reacting to situations.

D-59. An imminent hostile threat can be engaged at any time, but if not yet determined to be a threat, use reasonable non-deadly force or EOF as the situation dictates, to protect yourself and to develop the situation.

D-60. Soldiers at every level must understand EOF procedures – before, during, and after an EOF event; to include the possible Strategic Impacts of EOF incidents on Local Nationals’ negative perceptions.

  • Soldiers must train and rehearse EOF procedures.
  • EOF never limits a Soldier’s inherent right to self-defense.
  • All Soldiers understand in order to prevent hesitation.
  • Leaders must include EOF in planning and preparation for operations.
  • Correct equipment reduces unnecessary casualties.

D-61. The use of nonlethal weapons and munitions provide a safer, less-than-lethal alternative to warn and deter individuals during potential EOF incidents. Units should use nonlethal munitions and tools whenever possible during EOF incidents. Soldiers should conduct proper training, familiarization, and certification with each type of nonlethal munitions and tools prior to their use.

D-62. When time and circumstances permit:

  • Use audible warning (horn, loudspeaker, flash/bang device, or siren).
  • Use visual aids (lights, laser pointers, flares, colored flags, signs).
  • Show weapon and demonstrate intent to use it.
  • Use other non-lethal means (stop strips, physical barrier, vehicle, visual/audio signal, signs).
  • Fire disabling fire (tires, engine block, windows).

Next: D-63: Search Element

Go Back To: U.S. Army FM 3-21.8: The Infantry Rifle Platoon and Squad