Previous: Appendix I: CBRN Operations
I-1. Protecting Soldiers from the harmful hazards associated with CBRN attacks in an area of operation is essential to preserving combat power. When the probability of CBRN threats exists, commanders and leaders must conduct a deliberate analysis to posture and equip forces for survival and mission effectiveness. CBRN and medical personnel consider mission variables and related information to provide recommendations on protection requirements that are reflected in the mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) level.
I-2. Leader involvement is necessary to ensure safe and sustained operations under various climatic conditions. Leaders should develop standard responses and COAs for each projected mission. If the probability of CBRN threats exists all soldiers will carry a protective mask, and ensure that individual protective gear is available within two hours. Second set available in six hours. The standard MOPP are—
- MOPP0. Carry a protective mask, and ensure that individual protective gear is within arm’s reach.
- MOPP1. Suit worn. Mask, gloves and boots carried.
- MOPP2. Suit and boots worn. Gloves and mask carried.
- MOPP3. Suit, boots and mask worn. Gloves carried.
- MOPP4. All protection worn.
I-3. Leaders know that they cannot expect the same work rates in MOPP4 as they achieved in MOPP0. They reevaluate the ability to meet mission requirements and communicate changes to the force. MOPP reduction decisions are between the most difficult to make because of the many considerations that affect the final decision. Commanders must evaluate the situation from the Soldier and mission perspectives. Factors include the criticality of the current mission, potential effects of personnel exposure, and the impact on the casualty care system.
I-4. Leaders determine the appropriate MOPP level by assessing mission variables and weighing the impact of increased protection levels. Higher headquarters provide MOPP-level directives to subordinate elements.
I-5. When a CBRN attack is recognized, everyone in the company team must receive the warning and assume the appropriate MOPP level. Soldiers in immediate danger need warnings they can see or hear. The alarm or signal must be simple and unmistakable if it is to produce a quick and correct reaction.
I-6. If a CBRN hazard is located, the contaminated area should be marked. The CBRN warning and reporting system and standardized contamination markers contribute to orderly warning procedures. Warning methods include automatic alarms, vocal alarms (a shout of “GAS” is the most frequently used alarm), non-vocal alarms (horn blasts or banging of metal-to-metal objects), and visual alarms, most commonly the appropriate hand-and-arm signals.